One of study dedicated to the 12th International Conference on Skin Ageing and Challenges is Skin whitening products and their ingredients for safety, health risk, and the halal status published by Fatin Nur Majdina Nordin and al.
This review paper aimed to shed light on the skin-whitening ingredients and their issues related to safety, health risk, and halal status: Skin-whitening products are in the high trend of demand for skin beautifying and lightening. Sources of ingredients for cosmetics could be natural, semi-synthetic, and synthetic that may affect the halal status of a product. The lack of scientific evidence on the safety and risks of such ingredients is a major concern to many consumers.
Based on the review, most of the common ingredients in the skin-whitening products are originated from plants, animals, microbes, and heavy metals. Health risk of the ingredients was evaluated based on the usage, chronic or acute adverse effect, frequency of incidence, and the hazardous chemical contents of a halal cosmetics. The halal status of the ingredients was investigated based on the sources of origin, safety evaluation, and associated health risk of the ingredients. This review shows that ingredients play a vital role in the halal status decision-making of a cosmetic product. Therefore, the categories of Halal-Safe, Haram-Prohibited, and Critical-Need further evaluation were suggested to integrate the sources of ingredients with safety.